The pKa 1 is 6. The restricted poants exchange under water has resulted in evolution of a suite of adaptive features in aquatic leaves and macroalgal thalli to reduce the influence of DBL on the exchange of O 2 and CO 2including the supplementary use of HCO 3 - bicarbonate Sculthorpe, ; Maberly, ; Colmer et al. Diffusion of inorganic carbon across an unstirred layer:
On the other hand, optodes can be built into the individual glass vials microdots glued onto the glass wall inside the vial and the O 2 concentration can be measured in a non-destructive manner Kragh et al. Carbonate precipitation closely coupled to photosynthesis is also found in coralline red algae, several green algae, and numerous freshwater angiosperms developing polar leaves with high pH and carbonate precipitation being confined to the upper leaf surfaces Raven and Hurd, Colmer3 and Kaj Sand-Jensen 1. A pH electrode is fitted in a second port and the signals from both sensors are logged onto a computer with data acquisition software. Any sea plants photosynthesis of O 2 by microalgae or consumption by microbial organisms in ambient water is accounted for in the blanks; micro-filtration of water is commonly used to remove background microflora. The O 2 produced or consumed during incubation can be measured directly in the glass vials using O 2 electrodes or optodes.So light definitely gets into the upper layers of the ocean, and that's where underwater - because that's where plants and algae first evolved. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances . and angiosperms in freshwater and marine environments (Raven and. known as photosynthesis, which occurs in plants, algae and some types of bacteria. physico-chemical process by which photosynthetic organisms use light.